KNOW ABOUT CORONAVIRUS
KNOW ABOUT CORONAVIRUS – By Dr Sunilkumar Bura
Coronaviruses are a large group of RNA viruses. It comes under the sub-family Orthocoronavirinae. Coronavirus virions are spherical to pleomorphic enveloped particles. The envelope is studded with projecting glycoproteins and surrounds a core consisting of matrix protein enclosed within which is a single strand of positive-sense RNA (Mr 6 × 106) associated with nucleoprotein. The envelope glycoproteins are responsible for attachment to the host cell and also carry the main antigenic epitopes, particularly the epitopes recognized by neutralizing antibodies. OC43 also possesses a haemagglutinin. The size of coronaviruses ranges from 26 to 32 kilobases. Most human coronaviruses fall into one of two serotypes: OC43-like and 229E-like. Coronaviruses cause acute, mild upper respiratory infection(Common cold) to more severe diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome(MERS) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome(SARS).
Discovery of coronaviruses
The very first discovery of the coronavirus took place in 1960, the name of this virus comes from the crown-like spikes that it has its surface. The word corona came from the Latin word "Crown." The early discovered was an infectious bronchitis virus which was found in chicken's respiratory tract and then later in 1963 two more cases were discovered from the nasal cavity of humans named As Human Corona Virus 229E and Human Corona Virus OC43 as a result of zoonotic transmission (transmission of disease from animals to humans). Since then the cases have occurred in several other forms in minimal numbers. Many shreds of evidence in history state that corona has always spread from an animal to a human, for instance, SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) was transmitted from bat to a human being in china in November 2002 and caused severe acute respiratory syndrome(Infected-8,098 and Killed 774). That virus disappeared by 2004. Middle East respiratory syndrome(MERS) is caused by the MERS Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) which is also called camel flu was transmitted from camel to human in Saudi Arabia in September 2012(Infected-2,056 People and killed 862 people worldwide). But this time the scientist are having difficulty in identifying the animal responsible for COVID-19.
WHAT IS A NOVEL CORONAVIRUS(nCOVID-19)
Covid 19 means : CO = corona, VI= virus ,D= disease 2019.
A novel coronavirus (CoV) is a new strain of coronavirus that has not been previously identified in humans. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is defined as an illness caused by a novel coronavirus now called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2; formerly called 2019-nCoV), which was first identified amid an outbreak of respiratory illness cases in Wuhan City, China in December 2019, which has a well-known seafood wholesale market, were a large number of people come to sell or buy live seafood; this market is also known for its wide variety of seafood. This strain of coronavirus was named COVID-19 on February 11 by the World Health Organization. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, the director of WHO, mentioned that they had to find a name that didn't point out any animal, geographical location, a person, or a group of people. The name should be easily pronounceable and had a clear relation to the disease. It's essential to have an impartial name so that other names don't get stigmatized. On January 30, 2020, the WHO declared the COVID-19 outbreak a global health emergency. On March 11, 2020, the WHO declared COVID-19 a global pandemic, its first such designation since declaring H1N1 influenza a pandemic in 2009.
How does infection happen?
COVID-19 appears to be spread via respiratory secretions when infected people cough or sneeze, similar to how influenza (flu) spreads. Currently, people at risk for COVID-19 include those who have been in close contact with infected people within 14 days before their symptoms began. The average time from when persons are exposed to signs of illness is about 5 days and can range from 2 to 14 days.
What are the symptoms of coronavirus?
People with COVID-19 have a fever, cough, muscle aches, headache, and diarrhoea, which are all symptoms similar to other viral infections, such as the flu. People who need hospitalization usually have severe pneumonia.
What are the prevention methods that we should follow?
1. Washing your hands with soap - every time you come from outside.
2. Social distancing of around 6 feet - so you do not get the infection.
3. Wearing a mask - this prevents the droplets from entering.
4. Living in a hotter environment - do not turn on your AC - the virus does not survive in hot conditions. Drink hot water/tea.
5. Cleaning and disinfecting the environment around you.
6. Take your medication for your illness - as COVID generally clings to your already existing illnesses and escalates it - this causes most deaths in diabetics, heart patients etc.